What does the computer know?(1)

汶茵姑娘2018-12-05 13:28:04

What does the computer know?

计算机是一种能够按照事先存储的程序,自动、高速地进行大量数值计算和各种信息处理的现代化智能电子设备。由硬件和软件所组成,两者是不可分割的。人们把没有安装任何软件的计算机称为裸机。随着科技的发展,现在新出现一些新型计算机有:生物计算机、光子计算机、量子计算机等。

A computer is an able to follow the prior stored programs, automatic, high speed on a large amount of numerical calculation and various information processing modern intelligent electronic equipment. By the hardware and software component, both are inseparable. People do not install any software computer called LuoJi. With the development of science and technology, new now appear some new computer has: biological computer, photon computer, quantum computer, etc.


hardware

计算机系统中所使用的电子线路和物理设备,是看得见、摸得着的实体,如中央处理器( CPU )、存储器、外部设备(输入输出设备、I/O设备)及总线等。

Computer systems for use in electronic circuits and physical device, is almost tangible entities, such as the central processing unit (CPU), storage, an external device (input/output devices, I/O devices) and bus, etc.


①存储器。主要功能是存放程序和数据,程序是计算机操作的依据,数据是计算机操作的对象。存储器是由存储体、地址译码器 、读写控制电路、地址总线和数据总线组成。能由中央处理器直接随机存取指令和数据的存储器称为主存储器,磁盘、磁带、光盘等大容量存储器称为外存储器(或辅助存储器) 。由主存储器、外部存储器和相应的软件,组成计算机的存储系统。

(1) the memory. The main function is to store programs and data, the program is the basis of computer operation, data is computer operation of object. Memory is by memory, address decoder, literacy control circuit, the address bus and the data bus composition. Can directly by the central processor instructions and data of random access memory says mainly memory, disk, tapes and CDS etc mass storage called external memory (or auxiliary storage). By the main memory, external memory and the corresponding software, composed of computer storage systems.


②中央处理器的主要功能是按存在存储器内的程序 ,逐条地执行程序所指定的操作。中央处理器的主要组成部分是:数据寄存器、指令寄存器、指令译码器、算术逻辑部件、操作控制器、程序计数器(指令地址计数器 )、地址寄存器等。

(2) the central processor's main function is to press exist within the memory program, headed to execution procedures specified by the operation. The central processor main component are: data registers, instruction register, instruction decoder, alus, operating controller, the program counter (instructions address counter), address register, etc.



③外部设备是用户与机器之间的桥梁。输入设备的任务是把用户要求计算机处理的数据、字符、文字、图形和程序等各种形式的信息转换为计算机所能接受的编码形式存入到计算机内。输出设备的任务是把计算机的处理结果以用户需要的形式(如屏幕显示、文字打印、图形图表、语言音响等)输出。输入输出接口是外部设备与中央处理器之间的缓冲装置,负责电气性能的匹配和信息格式的转换。

(3) an external device is a bridge between the user and the machine. The input device task was to user requirements of computer processing of data, characters, words, graphics and the procedure of various forms of converting information for the computer can accept coding form to inside a computer deposit. Output devices task was to computer processing results to the needs of user form (such as screen, text printing, graphic charts, language acoustics) output. Input/output interface is an external device with CPU between the buffering devices, responsible for electrical properties of matching and information format conversion.




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