What does the computer know?(1)

汶茵姑娘2019-01-03 10:28:06

What does the computer know?


A computer is an able to follow the prior stored programs, automatic, high speed on a large amount of numerical calculation and various information processing modern intelligent electronic equipment. By the hardware and software component, both are inseparable. People do not install any software computer called LuoJi. With the development of science and technology, new now appear some new computer has: biological computer, photon computer, quantum computer, etc.


计算机系统中所使用的电子线路和物理设备,是看得见、摸得着的实体,如中央处理器( CPU )、存储器、外部设备(输入输出设备、I/O设备)及总线等。

Computer systems for use in electronic circuits and physical device, is almost tangible entities, such as the central processing unit (CPU), storage, an external device (input/output devices, I/O devices) and bus, etc.

①存储器。主要功能是存放程序和数据,程序是计算机操作的依据,数据是计算机操作的对象。存储器是由存储体、地址译码器 、读写控制电路、地址总线和数据总线组成。能由中央处理器直接随机存取指令和数据的存储器称为主存储器,磁盘、磁带、光盘等大容量存储器称为外存储器(或辅助存储器) 。由主存储器、外部存储器和相应的软件,组成计算机的存储系统。

(1) the memory. The main function is to store programs and data, the program is the basis of computer operation, data is computer operation of object. Memory is by memory, address decoder, literacy control circuit, the address bus and the data bus composition. Can directly by the central processor instructions and data of random access memory says mainly memory, disk, tapes and CDS etc mass storage called external memory (or auxiliary storage). By the main memory, external memory and the corresponding software, composed of computer storage systems.

②中央处理器的主要功能是按存在存储器内的程序 ,逐条地执行程序所指定的操作。中央处理器的主要组成部分是:数据寄存器、指令寄存器、指令译码器、算术逻辑部件、操作控制器、程序计数器(指令地址计数器 )、地址寄存器等。

(2) the central processor's main function is to press exist within the memory program, headed to execution procedures specified by the operation. The central processor main component are: data registers, instruction register, instruction decoder, alus, operating controller, the program counter (instructions address counter), address register, etc.


(3) an external device is a bridge between the user and the machine. The input device task was to user requirements of computer processing of data, characters, words, graphics and the procedure of various forms of converting information for the computer can accept coding form to inside a computer deposit. Output devices task was to computer processing results to the needs of user form (such as screen, text printing, graphic charts, language acoustics) output. Input/output interface is an external device with CPU between the buffering devices, responsible for electrical properties of matching and information format conversion.



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